By John Bryan Holds MD
Info the anatomy of the orbit and adnexa, and emphasizes a pragmatic method of the overview and administration of orbital and eyelid issues, together with malpositions and involutional adjustments. Updates present info on congenital, inflammatory, infectious, neoplastic and hectic stipulations of the orbit and accent buildings. Covers key points of orbital, eyelid and facial surgical procedure. comprises quite a few new colour photos. significant revision 2011-2012.
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Extra info for 2011-2012 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 7: Orbit, Eyelids, and Lacrimal System (Basic & Clinical Science Course)
The sinus drains into the sphenoethmoidal recess of each nasal fossa. The optic canal is located immed iately superolateral to the sinus wall. Visual loss and visual fi eld abnormalit ies can be direct sequelae of pathologic processes involving the sphenoid sinus. The maxillary sinuses are the largest of the paranasal sinuses. Together, the roofs of each max illary sinus form the floor of the orbits. xillary sinuses extend posteriorly in the maxillary bone to the inferior orbital fissu re. The infraorbital nerve and artery travel along the roof of the sinus frol11 posterior to anterior.
San Francisco: American AcademyofOph lhalmology; 1996. CHAPTER 2 Evaluation of Orbital Disorders The evaluation of an orbital disorder should distinguish orbital from periorbital and in traocu lar lesions. This distinction provides a framework for development of a differential diagnosis. The evaluation begins with a detailed history to establish a probable diagnosis and gu ide the initial workup and therapy. Such a history should include • onset, course, and duration of symptoms (pain, altered sensation, diplopia, changes in vision) and signs (e rythema, palpable mass, globe displacement) prior d isease (s uch as thyroid eye disease [TED] or sinus disease) and therapy injury (especiall y head or facial trauma) systemic disease (es pecially cancer) fam ily hi story Old photographs are frequen tl y helpful for evaluating onset of globe displacement and estab lishing duration of the disease.
Testing for serum angiotensin-conve rting enzyme and lysozyme may be helpful in the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Th is multisystem granulomatous inflammatory condition may present with lacrimal gland enlargement, conjunctival granulomas. extraocular muscle o r optic nerve inmtration, or solitary orbital gran ulomas. Diagnosis is confirmed through biopsy of 1 or more affected organs. CHAPTER 3 Congenital Orbital Anomalies Most congenital anomalies of the eye and orbit are apparent on ultrasound before birth.
2011-2012 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 7: Orbit, Eyelids, and Lacrimal System (Basic & Clinical Science Course) by John Bryan Holds MD