By Audrey Thomas McCluskey

ISBN-10: 1442211385

ISBN-13: 9781442211384

Emerging from the darkness of the slave period and Reconstruction, black activist girls Lucy Craft Laney, Mary McLeod Bethune, Charlotte Hawkins Brown, and Nannie Helen Burroughs based faculties geared toward releasing African-American early life from deprived futures within the segregated and decidedly unequal South. From the overdue 19th via mid-twentieth centuries, those participants fought discrimination as participants of a bigger flow of black ladies who uplifted destiny generations via a spotlight on schooling, social carrier, and cultural transformation. Born unfastened, yet with the shadow of the slave previous nonetheless implanted of their realization, Laney, Bethune, Brown, and Burroughs outfitted off each one other’s successes and realized from each one other’s struggles as directors, teachers, and suffragists. Drawing from the women’s personal letters and writings approximately academic tools and from remembrances of surviving scholars, Audrey Thomas McCluskey unearths the pivotal importance of this sisterhood’s legacy for later generations and for the establishment of schooling itself.

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Extra resources for A Forgotten Sisterhood: Pioneering Black Women Educators and Activists in the Jim Crow South

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58. Bacote, Story of Atlanta University, 15–16. 59. Bacote, Story of Atlanta University, 15–16. 60. Anderson, Education of Blacks, 34. 61. George A. Towns, “The Source of the Traditions of Atlanta University,” Phylon 3, no. 2 (1942): 118–19. 62. Anderson, Education of Blacks, 328. 63. Anderson, Education of Blacks, 328. 64. Bacote, Story of Atlanta University, 2. 65. p. 66. p. 67. W. E. B. Du Bois, The Souls of Black Folk (Chicago: A. C. McClurg, 1903), 121–39 68. Lucy C. Laney, “General Conditions of Mortality,” in the Atlanta University Papers Series, ed.

77 Georgia, reluctant to support public schooling in general, was particularly wary of black public schools, especially those that went beyond the elementary level. In some counties that meant hiring the least qualified applicants to teach in them. ” He was quickly assured that “they” were receiving only “rudiments” of an education. 79 The situation did not change substantially during the early years of the twentieth century and provides another example of why Lucy Laney’s work in educating blacks was brave and fraught with challenges.

Augusta in the late 1890s was described as a place where “discrimination, segregation, and ostracism increased,” and blacks were denied political rights, privileges, and agen[cy]. 7 Haines Normal and Industrial Institute was sustained in that contrasting duality of circumstances, and came to be considered a community resource by blacks and even some white Augustans who were often antagonistic toward black advancement. The uniqueness of Haines was evident. Augusta had other outstanding black educational institutions including Paine Institute (later Paine College), chartered in 1883 by the Methodist Church, “The Best Secondary School in Georgia” 39 and presided over by a white male; Walker Baptist Institute, founded in 1898 by Rev.

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A Forgotten Sisterhood: Pioneering Black Women Educators and Activists in the Jim Crow South by Audrey Thomas McCluskey

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