By George Hemphill

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Indies man [man] /b/ = [b, (p)], Bob [b»b] GE [b»p] [8], m= church [örö] /o/ = [o, », (a)] lawn [Ion] loft [l»ft], [left] ¡dI = [d, 0, (t),] dread [dred] SD field [fil0] GE dread [dret] /a/ = [a, Θ, 0, f, ν, (t), (d), (β), (ζ),] the [3θ] SD with [wi6] Scots wi' [wi0] Cockney with [wif], [wiv] Substandard with [wit], the [de] Non-native with [wis], [wiz], the [ΖΘ] The mark ""' is explained on page 47 below. g] (23) /g/ = [g, η, (η), (nt), (g g)] singing [s'g*ig], i^krumah [g'krú'ma] S D singing [síg*n] S D length [Ιεηθ], [lentθ] S D L o n g Island [log gai-land] (24) /o/ = [o; ou, ου, o u ; eu, θυ, eu; o,] forth [forθ] plus the other allophones as listed (25) /θ/ = [Θ, f, (t),] three [6ri], Cockney [fri], S D (26) /ρ/ = pop (27) /r/ = [ρ,] [pop] [r, (w), (1), 0] red [red], Ι Α (28) /r/ = [tri] [wed], J E [led], S D throw [Θ0ο] [r, 3, β, 0 r, -r,] err M D [β], S D [3], butter M D [bá-tr], S D roar a t M D [bá-te] [rór set], S D [ró rget] carry S D [kœr'i], S D [ksè'ri] T h e subterminal zero indicates voicelessness; t h u s [m] = [w], [k] = [g], [ t ] = [d], etc.

Saumjan, Problems of Theoretical Phonology (The Hague, 1968). See particularly p. 21, p. 32, and pp. 53ff. Saumjan makes very profitable use of Reichenbach, Tarski, Quine, and other mathematical logicians; his book begins, in fact, with a quotation from Frege and recognition of his greatness. 3 See A. C. Gimson, An Introduction to the Pronunciation of English (New York, 1962), pp. vii — ix. THE SOUNDS OF ENGLISH (N) 39 Each roster is OPEN, not closed, in order to allow for future changes in the language and for allophones so far unnoticed.

4. )] em en eng The G continuants are arranged in four voiceless/voiced pairs followed by the three nasal continuants, all of which are voiced. Although there are no bona fide English words which consist phonetically of C continuants, only, [sVs], [S^S], and [m 1 m 1 m] carry correspondence value as signals of disapproval, silence, and agreement respectively. The third nasal [ g ] is not found initially in English words, but is quite common initially in African and Southeast Asian languages. The ΓΡΑ has [J] for [s] and [3] for [z], the probable reason for avoiding the latter signs being the understandable objection to diacritics.

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A Mathematical Grammar of English by George Hemphill

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