By Wayne H. Bowen
In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, Spain was once a key participant within the army conflagrations that created glossy Europe. From the Napoleonic Wars, during the costume practice session for international warfare II that was once the Spanish Civil battle, to the awful fight opposed to terrorism this day, the army background of recent Spain has either formed and mirrored higher forces past its borders.
This quantity strains the process Spanish army heritage, essentially in the course of the twentieth century. bankruptcy 1 offers the root for the position of the Spanish military at domestic (the struggle of Independence [Napoleonic War], the Carlist Wars, and pronunciamientos), in another country (Morocco, 1859-60), and as an software for Liberal reforms in Spain. bankruptcy 2 covers the interval following the Spanish-American battle because the military redirected its concentration to the Spanish Protectorate in northern Morocco. This bankruptcy covers the Rif uprising (1921-27), the dictatorship of Miguel Primo de Rivera (1923-30) and concludes with the top of the monarchy and the institution of the 2d Republic in 1931. Chapters three and four current the 2 armies of the Spanish Civil struggle, in addition to their dating to the warring factions of Nationalists and Republicans. bankruptcy five appears on the Spanish military in the course of global battle II at the japanese entrance (Russia), in its out of the country colonies, in addition to in Spain. De-colonialism is roofed in bankruptcy 6 as Spain, following the lead of the opposite ecu powers, started to shed itself of its African empire. bankruptcy eight charts Spain's integration into the Western safety neighborhood within the Nineteen Fifties, its club in NATO, and its participation in peacekeeping and humanitarian missions within the Balkans and the center East. bankruptcy nine makes a speciality of Spain's fight opposed to terrorism, either the family Basques of ETA (Fatherland and Liberty) and the more moderen clash opposed to al-Qaeda and radical Islamic fundamentalism.
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Additional info for A Military History of Modern Spain: From the Napoleonic Era to the International War on Terror
Army officers, normally conservative by nature, tend to distrust radical innovation, and efforts to reform any large bureaucratic institution often meet with failure anyway. In nineteenth-century Spain, the constant political turmoil, frequent civil wars, and deep involvement of leading officers in politics made it especially difficult to affect significant changes. Furthermore, to affirm that counterinsurgency merits as much attention as traditional strategy and tactics is to acknowledge something about the basic identity and purpose of an army that many military leaders are not willing to concede.
Part of the problem stemmed from the nature of Spanish military culture then, which emphasized personal bravery to an absurd degree while discounting the guerrilla tactics used by Carlists as cowardly. Such arguments help drown out those officers who advocated serious, rational study of Spanish campaigns from the recent past, thereby hindering doctrinal development. 28 At first, the infantry showed itself completely unprepared for the enemy’s guerrilla tactics, and in some cases it took only forty or fifty Moroccans to tie down an entire Spanish battalion.
36 In any case, it was the infantry that played the most important role in deciding battles. Once again, infantry officers began a new war with doctrine and an institutional culture in general more apt for regular European warfare than fighting guerrillas in mountainous terrain. As they soon discovered, the traditional European tactics that their leaders had emphasized were simply not possible given the conditions, a state of affairs from which they ironically benefited in at least one way. During the second half of the nineteenth century, defensive firepower increased tremendously, as the American Civil War had already made clear.
A Military History of Modern Spain: From the Napoleonic Era to the International War on Terror by Wayne H. Bowen