By D. S. Ballantine Jr., Robert M. White, S. J. Martin, Antonio J. Ricco, E. T. Zellers, G. C. Frye, H. Wohltjen, Moises Levy, Richard Stern

ISBN-10: 0080523331

ISBN-13: 9780080523330

ISBN-10: 0120774607

ISBN-13: 9780120774609

Written through an interdisciplinary staff of specialists from either and academia, this ebook offers an in-depth examine the present kingdom of acoustic wave units and the scope in their use in chemical, biochemical, and actual measurements, in addition to in engineering functions. a result of inherent interdisciplinary functions of those units, this e-book can be important for the chemist and biochemist attracted to the use and improvement of those sensors for particular functions; engineer eager about the layout and development of those units; the chemical engineer and the biotechnologist attracted to utilizing those units for method tracking and keep watch over; and the sensor neighborhood at huge.

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Extra resources for Acoustic Wave Sensors - Theory, Design, and Physico-Chemical Applications

Sample text

43) As mentioned previously, the energy stored in crystal deformation becomes kinetic energy one quarter of a cycle later. Thus, an energy conservation principle (known as the Rayleigh principle) applies to waves propagating in a lossless medium: peak strain energy density must equal peak kinetic energy density. One can apply this concept to calculate the wave velocity: an acoustic wave propagates at the velocity for which peak kinetic energy density exactly equals peak strain energy density. 43 yields the phase velocity: V = ¢o/k = (c'55]P) 1/2.

Having derived the condition for crystal resonance allows the displacement profile at resonance to be calculated. When the crystal is operated in air or vacuum, the crystal faces experience no external restoring force and arc considered to be stress-free boundaries; this implies that Oux/Oy = 0 at the upper and lower crystal faces. 4) where uxo is the surface displacement amplitude and kN = NTr/hs. 4 represents a standing shear wave with maxima at the crystal surfaces. 4 describes a family of thickness-shear modes, each having a unique standing shear-wave pattern across the crystal thickness.

Those modes that do propagate in contact with liquids, while not excessively damped, are nevertheless influenced by liquid properties. The mechanisms whereby all these devices interact with their immediate environment - - be it a thin film, a liquid, or both - as well as the resulting response, will be described in this chapter. 2. Due to the piezoelectric properties and crystalline orientation of the quartz, the application of a voltage between these electrodes results in a shear deformation of the crystal.

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Acoustic Wave Sensors - Theory, Design, and Physico-Chemical Applications by D. S. Ballantine Jr., Robert M. White, S. J. Martin, Antonio J. Ricco, E. T. Zellers, G. C. Frye, H. Wohltjen, Moises Levy, Richard Stern


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