By John F. Watts

ISBN-10: 0470847123

ISBN-13: 9780470847121

Commonly revised and up to date with extra fabric integrated in current chapters and new fabric on attitude resolved XPS, floor engineering and complimentary methods.
* comprises an obtainable advent to the foremost spectroscopic ideas in floor analysis.
* offers descriptions of up to date tools and techniques.
* incorporates a targeted thesaurus of key floor research phrases.

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10. The selected pass energy affects both the transmission of the analyser and its resolution. Selecting a small pass energy will result in high resolution while a large pass energy will provide higher transmission but poorer resolution. The pass energy remains constant throughout the energy range thus the resolution (in eV) is constant across the entire width of the spectrum. The range of pass energies available to the user depends upon the design of the spectrometer but is typically from about 1 eV to several hundred electron volts.

The tip is heated to about 1800 K in a large electrostatic field. The combination of the high temperature and the field causes electrons to be emitted. The vacuum requirements for this type of gun are much less stringent than is the case for the cold field emitter, although it is usual to provide additional pumping at the source when this type of emitter is used. 3 compares the important characteristics of the types of emitter considered here. 6 eV 1800 <1% 2000 High 34 ELECTRON SPECTROMETER DESIGN The stringent vacuum requirements and the relatively poor stability mean that the cold field emitter is rarely used for Auger electron spectroscopy.

For medium- and high-performance Auger instruments, either LaB6 or Schottky field emitters are generally used in commercially available instruments. The spot size attainable with a particular electron gun is a function of the primary beam current. 1 nA but increases to l00 nm at lOnA. 1 nA spectrum acquisition will be a lengthy process, but at 10 nA the current of Auger electrons will be increased to the point where analysis becomes practical. A satisfactory compromise must be reached between spatial resolution and spectral intensity.

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An Introduction To Surface Analysis By XPS And AES by John F. Watts

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