By Andersen P.K., Liestol K.

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One can divide it into replicate portions (or take replicate samples), some of these samples can be subjected to imposed change, others left without treatment, and differences subsequently developing can be ascribed to the imposed change, subject to the usual tests of statistical significance. This approach is subject to rather serious practical limitations. For most ecosystems, the size of a representative sample is considerable, and the spread of influence to and from the periphery of any delimited area is such that very wide "buffer zones" would be required.

Agricultural meteorology relies upon this phenological approach, generally to develop plant hardiness zones and to delineate crop zones for new varieties. In the execution of productivity studies, where instantaneous and cumulative production estimates and balances are required, relationships must be established between environmental stimuli and organismal responses. }. ~ 10 o 0 ~. 4. -,. 2J. 5 56. Dote Fig. 9. Reduction in light intensity reaching the floor of a deciduous forest in Hohenheim, Germany, as a result of canopy leaf development (after LIETH, 1960; LIETH and ASHTON, 1961).

Leaves, stems, roots, flowers and fruits) which often coincide with plant parts for which we distinguish different phenophases (Fig. 4); or other quantitative criteria can be measured, like chlorophyll content and leaf area index (Fig. 5). The cartographic evaluation of phenological observations is usually done by drawing lines through geographic locations entering the same phenophase at the same time. These lines are referred to as "isophenes" (Fig. 6, see legend for further explanation). Phenological Approaches to Productivity Studies The Determination of the Growing Season To conduct productivity studies in the field it is usually necessary to define both the beginning and end of the growing period in relation to the calendar year.

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Attenuation caused by infrequently updated covariates in survival analysis by Andersen P.K., Liestol K.

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