By Debra J. Shetlar, Patricia Chevez-Barrios, Sander Dubovy, Robert H. Rosa, Jr, Nasreen Syed, Matthew W. Wilson, Ron W. Pelton, Jacob Pe'er
Discusses advances within the prognosis and class of tumors because it publications the reader via a logical, tissue-specific series that levels from topography via affliction approach to normal and differential analysis. Many new colour pathologic and scientific photos and diagrams spotlight this most up-to-date revision. Covers wound fix; specimen dealing with, together with processing and marking; and diagnostic innovations. additionally features a list for inquiring for ophthalmic pathologic session.
Read or Download Basic and Clinical Science Course, 2008-2009, Section 4: Ophthalmic Pathology and Intraocular Tumors PDF
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Extra info for Basic and Clinical Science Course, 2008-2009, Section 4: Ophthalmic Pathology and Intraocular Tumors
In specific instances, other fixatives may be preferred, such as glutaraldehyde for electron microscopy and ethyl alcohol for cytologic preparations. Table 3-1 lists examples of some commonly used fixatives. Formalin diffuses rather quickly through tissue. Because most of the functional tissue of the eye is within 2-3 mm of the surface, it is not necessary or desirable to open the eye. Opening the eye prior to fixation may damage or distort sites of pathology, making histologic interpretation difficult or impossible.
In the last decade, traditional diagnostic approaches were supplemented by the successful application of these newer techniques (see Table 4-2) to formalinfixed, paraffin-embedded tissue, making it possible to subject a broader range of clinical material to molecular analysis. Thus, molecular genetics has already become an integral part of the workup in tumors, such as pediatric orbital tumors (rhabdomyosarcomas, neuroblastoma, peripheral neuroectodermal tumors [PNET]), that demonstrate characteristic translocations.
Fluorescent signal easily detected in fresh or fixed tissue 1. Known type and location of expected aberrations 2. Limited number of chromosomal loci at one time Quality snapfrozen tissue (optimal) and archival paraffinembedded tissue 1. Variable success rate of DNA extraction 2. Contamination with other nucleic acid material 1. Variable success rate of RNA extraction 2. Contamination with other nucleic acid material Variable success rate of RNA extraction Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) Reverse transcriptasepolymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) Metaphase chromosomes stained, producing patterns of dark and light bands along the length of each chromosome Chromosome 1980s region-specific, fluorescentlabeled DNA probes (cloned pieces genomic DNA) able to detect their complementary DNA sequences Amplification of 1980s a single strand of nucleic acid thousands of times, enabling recognition 1990s Detection of specific chimeric RNA transcripts "Real time" quantitative RT-PCR 1999 Measurement of PCR-product accumulation during the exponential phase of the PCR reaction using a dual-labeled fluorogenic probe Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) 1990s Genomic DNAs of test (patient) and reference (normal) samples, labeled green and red, respectively.
Basic and Clinical Science Course, 2008-2009, Section 4: Ophthalmic Pathology and Intraocular Tumors by Debra J. Shetlar, Patricia Chevez-Barrios, Sander Dubovy, Robert H. Rosa, Jr, Nasreen Syed, Matthew W. Wilson, Ron W. Pelton, Jacob Pe'er