By A. Nowotny (auth.), Alois Nowotny (eds.)
The learn of endotoxins has gone through cycles of enthusiastic study through forget and revival back as a result of newly defined organic results attributed to endotoxins. it's virtually a commonly acceptable rule that either extremes in such fluctuations within the acclaim for convinced re seek fields are unjustified. it's visible that exaggerated expectancies will bring about disappointments, and whole overlook of a once-exciting box is to be by way of renewed cognizance, if the medical foundation of previous curiosity used to be strong and remained so all through. The therapeutic ef fect of fever used to be praised as nature's blessed treatment, till it used to be discov ered that it really is because of micro organism. while it grew to become glaring that by means of cautious software you'll arrive at healing doses with out intro ducing surprise and hypotension, the period of fever treatment begun. in this time, indiscriminate use of pyrogens was once so common that the excessive expectancies needed to be via disillusionment. given that then, in terest in endotoxins skilled a couple of extra oscillations, with various wavelengths and amplitudes, the newest being caused by means of the mitotic impact of endotoxin. This resulted in justified pleasure between researchers who learn the activation of the cells of the lymphatic procedure and the implications thereof, together with the discharge of significant mediator mol ecules. Fever treatment is passe, however the therapeutic that frequently the ap plication of endotoxins continues to be a well-documented fact.
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Oversimplifications are condemnable and although they make attractive lectures and often-quoted publications, they inevitably mislead the audience through avoidance of confounding realities. It is evident that this incomplete review has brought up many more new problems than it has solved old ones, as every honest look into the complexities of similar biological phenomena should do. What one can still hope for from such exposures of admittedly disheartening perplexity is the realization of still open possibilities in the search for better understanding of underlying mechanisms.
A. Heading the list of beneficial effects of endotoxins is immunogenicity. Immunogenicity is beneficial provided it does not lead to hypersensitivity or to other pathological consequences. Humoral immunity to endotoxin was shown to neutralize several toxic effects in vitro, as discussed above. Chapter 4 deals with this aspect in detail. Once again, the most important discoveries in this field are those of Westphal and Llideritz, who initiated and completed research in this field. Together with their collaborators and students, they clearly established the chemical structure of the O-antigenic determinants of gram-negative bacteria.
Whether these trace amounts of amino acids are residues of the socalled "endotoxin protein" remains to be investigated. A mitogenic protein was discovered in certain endotoxins by Sultzer and Goodman (1976) and simultaneously by Morrison et al. (1976). Sultzer studied the genetics of responsiveness to LPS using C3H/HeJ nonresponder and the corresponding C3H responder strains of mice (Sultzer, 1968, 1969). He discovered that C3H/HeJ mice responded to TCA endotoxin but not to phenol-water-extracted preparations.
Beneficial Effects of Endotoxins by A. Nowotny (auth.), Alois Nowotny (eds.)