By Bruce J. W. Evans BSc PhD FCOptom DipCLP DipOrth FAAO FBCLA, Sandip Doshi PhD MCOptom
* this article represents a traditional method of the analysis and administration of binocular imaginative and prescient problems * it's a functional, very smooth textual content with a hugely designed format and with wide use of complete color illustrations * Containing contributions through suitable specialists within the box it truly is carefully edited to make sure that a uniform and regularly excessive usual is maintained all through
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Extra resources for Binocular Vision & Orthoptics. Investigation and Management
The change from distance to near is not only the effect of accommodation but also of a strong component of voluntary control. which reduces the deviation at near. A few hours' occlusion disrupts the habitual status and reveals an underlying basic deviation that is equally large at near and distance (see Chapter 4). e, 'simulated' rather than 'true' (Von Noorden, 1980). Management is difficult. The fusional reserves are usually greater than normal. 38 Binocular Vision and Orthoptics hut still not sufficient to control the deviation.
And in old age 8~ exophoria is not unusual. Measurement and normal values Accommodative convergence There are many methods of detecting and measuring heterophoria (see Chapters 1, 2. 4 and 6). In the UK. the Maddox rod. Maddox wing and cover tests are favoured. In the USA and most of Europe. prism disso- In young people, the major influence on convergence is accommodation (see Chapter 4). The amount of convergence induced by 1 D of accommodation (the AC/ A ratio) is different from one person to another.
It has been observed that patients with decompensated fusional convergence very rarely have voluntary convergence, and those with voluntary convergence rarely decompensate. Most patients can be taught voluntary convergence. There are a variety of mechanisms that may help the patient to converge voluntarily; some patients will use diplopia, and others imagine a bee flying towards the nose to trigger the convergence response. After repetitive exercises the patient will be aware of the proprioceptive feeling of the eyes being converged.
Binocular Vision & Orthoptics. Investigation and Management by Bruce J. W. Evans BSc PhD FCOptom DipCLP DipOrth FAAO FBCLA, Sandip Doshi PhD MCOptom