By Sarah A. Lister
Via mid-May 2007, the us had proven 3 situations of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, or 'mad cow disease'): the 1st in December 2003 in a Canadian-born cow present in Washington country, the second one in June 2005 in cow in Texas, and the 3rd in March 2006 in a cow in Alabama. almost immediately after the 1st case, U.S. division of Agriculture (USDA) and different officers introduced measures to enhance current safeguards opposed to the advent and unfold of BSE. formerly, the foremost safeguards have been: USDA regulations on imports of ruminants and their items from nations with BSE; a ban on feeding so much mammalian proteins to farm animals and different ruminants, issued through the nutrients and Drug management (FDA); and a specific family surveillance application via USDA's Animal and Plant well-being Inspection provider (APHIS), the employer answerable for animal future health tracking and ailment regulate.
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Extra resources for Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, or Mad Cow Disease): Current and Proposed Safeguards
And, because abnormal prions are found in abundance only in the brain and spinal cord, an animal must die or be killed to be tested. Also, research to date suggests that existing tests cannot detect the disease in an animal any time sooner than two to three months before an animal begins to exhibit clinical signs of infection. Representatives of the USDA and some in industry have repeatedly stressed that BSE testing serves to support the surveillance program, and is not directly intended as food safety testing.
34 Sarah A. Lister and Geoffrey S.  The purpose of the program, according to GAO, was to collect and study samples of cattle and other animal feeds and ingredients to determine whether permitted cattle feed might contain FDA prohibited material. Because some cattle-derived products are permitted in feeds (blood, milk protein, plate waste), laboratory tests could not definitively determine violations — only potential violations, leading to follow-up reviews, it was noted. GAO cited several weaknesses in the testing program, including no FDA requirement that districts document follow-up reviews or provide the basis for their final determinations on samples; extended periods to complete nearly half of the 989 samples studied by GAO, making it possible for feed to be consumed before results were in; and inadequate headquarters oversight of the program.
These figures include the costs of needed capital investments in slaughter and rendering facilities, plus their labor and recordkeeping expenses, lost value of cattle parts no longer eligible for feed, feed substitution costs, and disposal costs. 7 million to nearly $10 million per year. 1 million pounds of cattle parts no longer eligible for animal feed use. 53 million per year for disposing of from 26,000 to 64,000 cattle carcasses that could no longer be rendered, according to FDA’s economic analysis.
Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, or Mad Cow Disease): Current and Proposed Safeguards by Sarah A. Lister