By R. Warren, Alan Coulthard

ISBN-10: 0203215435

ISBN-13: 9780203215432

ISBN-10: 0203292650

ISBN-13: 9780203292655

ISBN-10: 1841841374

ISBN-13: 9781841841373

Advancements in MRI and software program have made breast assessments to be had in new methods for plenty of extra clients. whilst, breast MRI is evolving from a examine instrument to a clinically worthwhile imaging modality. The impetus for additional medical improvement is probably going to move from MRI researchers to "breast" radiologists. a lot of those radiologists might be skilled in breast imaging yet now not unavoidably MRI. With this in brain, Breast MRI in perform presents a finished and sensible advisor to imaging the breast with MRI. it truly is essential for oncologists, radiologists and clinical scholars in these fields.

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1) where M0 is the equilibrium magnetization, t is time and Mz(0) the value of Mz at t = 0. 1 for two tissues with different T1 values. Defined precisely, the T1 time is the time required for the longitudinal component of the magnetization vector to recover to 63% of its equilibrium value following exposure to an RF pulse. The MR signal intensity is determined by the quantity of longitudinal magnetization existing prior to the application of the RF pulse. Protons with a large initial longitudinal magnetization will produce a larger signal than protons with a smaller initial longitudinal magnetization.

A range of flip angles may be used in gradient-echo sequences depending on the required contrast weighting. Affects contrast between tissues in gradient echo sequences when short TR values are used. It also affects the SNR since it controls the amount of transverse magnetization that is created and therefore the amount of signal detected by the receiver coil. The optimum flip angle for T1-weighted gradient echo sequences depends on the TR value. Saturation pulses Definition Pulses applied before the RF excitation pulse or signal reception, to manipulate the amount of longitudinal magnetization and/or the transverse magnetization.

In order that the quality control tests truly reflect the actual system performance, it is important that the test objects are stable and robust and that the MR properties of the test objects are suitable. For example, the test materials should have tissue-like properties (T1, T2 values, proton density, conductivity), but more importantly, they should not have any properties that could give rise to artefacts (susceptibility effects, non-uniformity). Many test objects are constructed from Perspex™ and may be filled, for example, with aqueous solutions of a paramagnetic salt (CuSO4, MnCl2, GdCl2), oil or gel substances.

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Breast MRI in Practice by R. Warren, Alan Coulthard

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