By Jeffrey I. Enyart (Editor) Iraj I. Kaspar (Editor)
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Additional resources for Concrete Pipe for the New Millennium (ASTM Special Technical Publication, 1368)
0 . 50 . 37 Live Load Surch. 0 . 42 Vert. 75 9 LRFD Specifications state that fatigue need not be investigated for buried concrete structures. Since box sections with less than 2 ft o f fill are designed with live load applied directly to the top slab, these sections should not be considered buried and are evaluated for fatigue. Multiple Presence Factor For spans less than or equal to 15 fi, LRFD provisions require that force effects from design vehicle loading be multiplied by a multiple presence factor, which is dependent on the number of loaded traffic lanes.
5 in. wall, 108 in. diameter, SIDD Type 2 design, which has low radial tension strength). Since there are no criteria for determining shear or radial tension strength of reinforced concrete pressure pipe given in the existing standards for design of lowhead pressure pipe, it was important to check these criteria for the tabulated designs of pipe having the deepest burial combined with the highest pressure. 34 CONCRETEPIPE FOR THE NEW MILLENNIUM Table 1. Summary of Example SIDD Low-Head Pressure Pipe Design Results and Comparison with ASTM C361 Table Design Pipe Internal Diameters: Pipe Wall Thicknesses: Reinforcement Arrangement: Concrete Clear Cover: Design Concrete Compressive Strength, fc': Earth Cover Over Pipe: Unit Weight of Earth: Pressure Head: Minimum Yield Strength of Reinforcement: Pipe Wall Installation Inside Thickness Type Diam.
Relates to importance and is determined on the basis of an assessment of the need for continued function and safety. The most dramatic difference in load factors occurs for live load, where LRFD provisions require y. 2 for single lane loading, as discussed later). A list of load factors for both LRFD and Standard is given in Table 1. 17 No Requirement No Requirement Load Combinations In general, design loads utilizing maximum load factors are combined to produce the maximum force effect. However, when one design load decreases the effect of another, the minimum load factor is used for the load that decreases the force effect.
Concrete Pipe for the New Millennium (ASTM Special Technical Publication, 1368) by Jeffrey I. Enyart (Editor) Iraj I. Kaspar (Editor)