By James A. Goodman, Samuel J. Purkis, Stuart R. Phinn
Remote sensing stands because the defining know-how in our skill to observe coral reefs, in addition to their biophysical houses and linked tactics, at neighborhood to worldwide scales. With overwhelming proof that a lot of Earth’s reefs are in decline, our desire for large-scale, repeatable exams of reefs hasn't ever been so nice. thankfully, the final 20 years have visible a speedy growth within the skill for distant sensing to map and visual display unit the coral reef surroundings, its overlying water column, and surrounding environment.
Remote sensing is now a basic software for the mapping, tracking and administration of coral reef ecosystems. distant sensing bargains repeatable, quantitative checks of habitat and environmental features over spatially huge components. because the multi-disciplinary box of coral reef distant sensing keeps to mature, effects exhibit that the concepts and functions proceed to enhance. New advancements enable reef exams and mapping to be played with better accuracy, throughout larger spatial parts, and with larger temporal frequency. The elevated point of data that distant sensing now makes on hand additionally permits extra advanced clinical inquiries to be addressed.
As outlined for this e-book, distant sensing contains the great array of geospatial information accrued from land, water, send, airborne and satellite tv for pc structures. The booklet is geared up by way of expertise, together with: obvious and infrared sensing utilizing photographic, multispectral and hyperspectral tools; energetic sensing utilizing gentle detection and varying (LiDAR); acoustic sensing utilizing send, independent underwater motor vehicle (AUV) and in-water systems; and thermal and radar instruments.
Emphasis and Audience
This publication serves a number of roles. It bargains an outline of the present cutting-edge applied sciences for reef mapping, offers targeted technical details for coral reef distant sensing experts, imparts perception at the clinical questions that may be tackled utilizing this expertise, and likewise incorporates a beginning for these new to reef distant sensing. the person sections of the booklet comprise introductory overviews of 4 major varieties of remotely sensed information used to review coral reefs, by means of particular examples demonstrating functional functions of different applied sciences being mentioned. guidance for choosing the main acceptable sensor for specific functions are supplied, together with an outline of the way to make use of distant sensing information as a good device in technology and administration. The textual content is richly illustrated with examples of every sensing know-how utilized to more than a few medical, tracking and administration questions in reefs worldwide. As such, the e-book is largely available to a common viewers, in addition to scholars, managers, distant sensing experts and someone else operating with coral reef ecosystems.
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Additional info for Coral Reef Remote Sensing: A Guide for Mapping, Monitoring and Management
These techniques assume the image pixel is larger than the features to be mapped and are applied to images which have had the influence of the water column removed (Hedley and Mumby 2003; Hedley et al. 2004; Goodman and Ustin 2007; Lesser and Mobley 2007). The mathematical solutions required for these techniques become more accurate as the number of un-correlated input variables (spectral bands in this case) increases; hence hyperspectral image data are used predominantly in this approach. The remaining approaches, commonly referred to as ‘‘inversion’’ techniques use empirical or analytic mathematical solutions to extract biophysical information from image pixels, including water depth, concentrations of organic and inorganic material in the water column, and benthic/substrate reflectance signatures.
Corrected data (geometric, radiometric and atmospheric): These are the first stages in image processing, referred to as image preprocessing steps. Geometric correction involves aligning the image to an established coordinate system, projection and datum, which allows the image to be used or overlaid with other spatial data and field data. An accuracy or error level should be provided as part of this correction. Radiometric correction translates the relative pixel values to absolute measures of radiance per unit wavelength of light.
A main focus of this chapter is describing the control that spatial resolution and spectral band number, band width and band position have on the information able to be mapped. Aerial photography is the simplest and most historically relevant data set, typically covering local to regional scales (several km2 to 100s of km2), sometimes with records stretching back to the 1930s (Hernandez-Cruz et al. 2006). Astronaut photography is also available, and although collection is opportunistic rather than systematic, valuable information can be extracted from this imagery.
Coral Reef Remote Sensing: A Guide for Mapping, Monitoring and Management by James A. Goodman, Samuel J. Purkis, Stuart R. Phinn