By Jonathan C. Iliffe
New equipment of buying spatial info and the arrival of geographic details structures (GIS) for dealing with and manipulating information suggest that we now not needs to depend upon paper maps from a unmarried resource, yet can collect, mix, and customise spatial info as wanted. to make sure caliber effects, even though, one needs to totally comprehend the varied coordinate frameworks upon which the information are based.
Datums and Map Projections offers transparent, obtainable reasons of the terminology, relationships, differences, and computations considering combining info from diverse resources. the 1st half the e-book specializes in datums, exploring assorted coordinate structures and datums, together with - and 3-dimensional representations of Earth coordinates and vertical datums. After an summary of the worldwide positioning approach (GPS), the writer introduces the basics of map projections and examines the different sorts. He then offers versions and techniques for reworking without delay among info units. the ultimate bankruptcy provides case stories of tasks that illustrate the kinds of difficulties usually encountered in practice.
Newcomers to the sphere will welcome this remedy that, rather than exact arithmetic, makes use of lucid reasons and diverse examples to solve the complexities of the topic. For more matured readers, the publication is a worthwhile reference that solutions particular questions and imparts a greater realizing of transformation operations and rules.
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Additional info for Datums and Map Projections: For Remote Sensing, GIS and Surveying
Courtesy of R. ) from the satellites to the receiver intersect at a shallow angle (because the satellites are grouped in one portion of the sky), the accuracy of the three-dimensional coordinates of the point will be worse than if the satellites were well distributed around the sky. This is analogous to the situation with the determination of two-dimensional coordinates from the intersection of measured distances that is depicted in Fig. 5: although the distances are measured to the same precision in each case, the accuracy of the coordinates will be worse if the distances intersect at an acute angle.
1, one possible alternative is to attempt to estimate the transformation parameters from a knowledge of the geoid in the region. As a demonstration of this technique, consider the situation in the UK as an example. The British datum, OSGB36, was effectively established by maintaining the position of the spheroid at Greenwich from the nineteenth-century survey. Therefore OSGB36 is parallel to and coincident with the geoid at the point:
Figures quoted for the datum of any particular country will be average values and not applicable throughout the country without some loss of accuracy. 1; the values given here are averages, and should be used with caution. 1. 1 shows. Thus, the parameters for South Africa and Zimbabwe are similar, whereas those for Namibia (formerly German South West Africa) are very different. There is a trend in some countries (for example the USA and Australia) for the ITRF to be adopted as the basis for the national mapping system.
Datums and Map Projections: For Remote Sensing, GIS and Surveying by Jonathan C. Iliffe