By Alexander Crummell
An incredible 19th-century reformer and highbrow, Alexander Crummell (1819-1898) was once the 1st black American to obtain a level from Cambridge college. Upon commencement, he sailed to Liberia, the place from 1853 to 1872 he labored as a farmer, educator, small company operator, and Episcopal missionary. Returning to the USA in 1873, he tested St. Luke's Episcopal Church in Washington, D.C., serving as its pastor until eventually 1894. Crummell remained lively within the black group all through his later years and in 1897 based the yank Negro Academy, which he meant as a problem to the ability of Booker T. Washington's accommodationist philosophy. all through his lengthy existence, Crummell used to be a prolific, occasionally arguable, and infrequently acerbic author. His pioneering paintings on black nationalism, black self-determination, and Pan-Americanism stimulated many African-American leaders of his day, together with W.E.B. Du Bois, who committed a bankruptcy to Crummell in "The Souls of Black Folk". Crummell's surviving papers contain over four hundred sermons and political essays and a voluminous correspondence. regardless of his value to American and African-American heritage, Crummell is little recognized this present day. aside from the facsimile reprints of 2 of his books within the Nineteen Sixties, there were no smooth printings of his paintings. This quantity is meant to revive Crummell's voice and to steered a reevaluation of his writings.
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Additional resources for Destiny and Race: Selected Writings, 1840-1898
Like the Statement to the Congregation of St. Luke's Church, they reveal the volatility of Crummell's temperament. They are also significant for what they reveal of his hostility to mulattoes. There were a number of men of mixed ancestry for whom Crummell had the utmost respect, including Francis J. Grimké and W. E. B. Du Bois, but in general, it is certainly no overstatement to say that he tended to view mulattoes with suspicion. The letter to Bruce written from England in August 1897 is unreadable on microfilm.
Crummell's two addresses at the first meeting of the American Negro Academy in 1897 represent his opposition to the materialism of Booker T. Washington. Crummell believed that industrial education was necessary in order to develop a technocratic elite, but he also believed that liberal arts education was necessary for the creation of cultural and intellectual leadership. In this essay one may readily discern the roots of the "Talented Tenth" philosophy later developed in the writings of W. E.
This essay, which the Schomburg Catalog dates at 1890, is a specific example of Crummell's engagement in the piety versus moralism controversy. It represents Crummell's hostility to the heresy of antinomianism, or, as others would put it, the essay represents his gravitation to the heresy of Arminianism. Crummell's commitment to the doctrine that the Christian is saved not only by faith or by the redeeming power of grace but also by deeds placed him outside the mainstream of grass-roots evangelical Protestantism in America.
Destiny and Race: Selected Writings, 1840-1898 by Alexander Crummell